A gallery dedicated to our Peony Rice Brides, who have chosen their very own Peony Rice designs. Bridal gowns and unique bridal accessories created with them in mind. All with beautiful stories, hope this can inspire your special day
Contact at firstname.lastname@example.org for further enquiries.
Peony Rice Bride Anita & JP, Argentina
Definately a rockstar wedding, from Shanghai to Argentina, took place at the beautiful Bodegas Agrestis in Patagonia, Argentina
Bride is wearing our Lou Ruffle trimmed gown, simple clean cut and feminine. Photos by Gonzalo Jose Palermo
More June Weddings.....
Peony Rice Bride MELDA & ESTEBAN, Madrid, Spain
This time a wedding in the City of Madrid.
Our beautiful Melda chose a custom design gown, starting from being a very unconventional bride who wasn't ready to put herself in a traditional wedding gown... she went with her instincts and we spent many hours over whats app, wechat, video chat, discussing the details of the gown and sense checking inspiration images, how she wanted to feel in the gown and look, colors, and we designed and created a special floral hand cut and stitched embroidery lace applique gown with a semi sheer lace overlayed with white tulle and nude layered ball skirt that was not too voluminous and dramatic. It took one fitting in Barcelona and a final fitting with a few small adjustments a few days before the wedding after we arrived in Madrid to join the celebration.
The end result was a very light and comfortable piece that was airy and caught the light just at the right moment. This gown gave our bride Melda the soft and feminine look for their unique ceremony in the El Retiro Park, where Esteban her husband had proposed and then enabling her to dance the night away free spirited....
The bride got to wear her gown again for the second ceremony in Turkey among their family members.... and the best part - the two of them are about to become three.
Images by Thrall Photography
"Look at the beautiful photos of the amazing day that you were an important part of. I cannot thank you, Gar and the whole team of peony rice more!!! I felt so special in the dress and I will always remember how it felt whenever I look at these great memories.
You know it was never the most important thing for me to be wearing “the perfect” dress for the day (whatever it means). But I understand now that wearing the right thing that you put so much sentiments in and that is special to you and you feel comfortable with is the key. Thanks for bearing with me and the little bump! Hahaha" Melda
Peony Rice Bride Caitlin, California, USA
A perfect fall wedding set in the lush green mountains.
This was definitely one of our favorites for a bespoke gown. Romantic, feminine and with sleeves! From the first moment, our bride had a thoughtful, sure vision which makes it so much easier for us to design into her wedding dress. She described each part of her wedding-to-be that we were almost there. Her husband to be was also so supportive of her interpretations. Love filled our studio!
The Japanese petite fleurs lace met the occasion draped over silk crepe, with it's little sprinkle of flowers in the design and two gorgeous edgings to play with. Soft gathers at the lace with the silk and a small train fit the chic boho-esque wedding setting.
Of course there was also a little drama with a detachable cape subtly adorned with hand stitched pearls.
A beautiful rich decadent color theme for the special day held at the Paradise Spring Mountains deep in the Sierra Mountains, Oakhurst, California - with her husband in a deep burgundy velvet tux, bridesmaids in Blue and groomsmen in forest green.
We loved how the colors all came together for this setting in the forest right down to the table decor. Truly chic with glam and very grown up decadent feel. How much more special could it get to share all this love on this memorable day. We are always deeply touched when we see the wedding photos and how the whole event come together.
Even better than our imaginations took us with all the many details that went into the day. Congrats to this wonderful couple.
View more on the wedding day from Wedding Photographers Vitae Weddings
Peony Rice Bride ANNE-SOPHIE, Mexico
This is “All about love” - the union of Anne-Sophie and Oscar earlier in the summer...truly perfect moments and perfect ambience.This was one laid back bride who was very sure of her vision from the beginning and meticulous on the details, so in synch with the location that was chosen for her special day.
Our Bride wears a custom layered embroidery swiss dot on tulle full skirt worn over our Joan silk satin charmeuse slip .. simple modern elegance and we loved the colors of the bouquet. She chose a second outfit for the main signing. The location and all the laid back details were perfectly imagined. Wedding What a joy it was when we got to see the breath taking location of Acre Baja in Mexico where the wedding took place over a series of days. Wonderfully captured by Kape Photography.
Peony Rice Bride ALIX & JOEP, Burgundy, France
June is a wonderful month to begin summer weddings.
Alix our bride tied the knot in France to her husband Joep in the breathtakingly intimate location of the Chateau de Pierre clos in Burgundy, France. Her bespoke gown is a Silk Crepe and Chiffon Gown trimmed with a french lace upper. Relaxed, subtle and elegant, very much her style. She paired this with a hand stitched cathedral length veil with matching french lace trim to her dress. This was a joy to work on. Simple details that are modern and beautiful. Perfect for the intimate setting.
"When I first met Gar & Pauline and had a look at their collection it gave me the confidence to commission Peony Rice for my wedding dress. During the whole process, both ladies didn't disappoint me. Their professionalism, technical skills and guidance lead to a stunning result, to the wedding dress of my dreams. We had a great wedding day and I looked stunning according to my husband so mission accomplished! Thank you ladies, it was a great time with you!"- Alix Van Meerwijk
Peony Rice Bride Echo, Hong Kong
This cool couple really had a fun setting for their wedding on a green patch in Clear water bay
The bride chose a Deep V neckline with an embroidered back detail with a small trumpet train. With her petite frame, the simplicity of this cut showed off her silhouette and the silk crepe she chose allowed her body to breathe and move in the humidity in October.
Silk really has the best natural movement and was light enough she could party the night away and have fun. Super creative wedding party
Peony Rice Bride SHARON & her Husband, Provence, France
This beautiful bride Sharon and her husband went for an elopement wedding in Provence, France organized by Spectrum weddings. We created her main gown in silk crepe based on one of our Peony Rice styles and personalized it with a corded French lace of her choice from Calais. The pattern was traditional with a small twist to the design. Her gown featured a fitted column cut with a small train and a naturally pleated high wide waist band to accentuate her waist and flatter her petite and curvaceous figure. She paired this with a hand made veil using the same lace with small pearls and paillettes.
Peony Rice Bride ISABELLA, London, UK & Shanghai, China
This gorgeous bride Isabella chose to go bespoke with us all the way, and we were more then happy to oblige! From her bespoke wool silk off the shoulder jumpsuit for her pre wedding pictures, down to her main dress for her special day. We created a stunning silk crepe sweetheart bandeau with a delicate french lace overlay. To finish of the look, we added a stunning embroidery lace and beaded scallop edge chapel length veil, and a little traditional touch with our "something blue" inspired pleated grosgrain and pearl garter
FAMILY PORTRAIT Shanghai, China
Dresses for all occasions! We love when Peony Rice can be a family affair! Our gorgeous bride chose our decadent Sofia
hand beaded soft tulle gown and V Back silk slip 2 piece, whilst the mother of the bride looked just as glamorous for this family portrait in our duchess satin pencil dress and Erin
lace crop sleeve top. For her sister, we chose a simple sweetheart bandeau paired with our Olivia
tulle skirt. What a picture perfect family!
Peony Rice Bride SOLENE, France
We always have a soft spot for our free spirited brides, and this dress was no exception! This Peony Rice bride Solene came to us looking for a soft and relaxed gown, that she could move easily with on her day. We chose to create a gorgeous wrap front A line custom gown using a modern little floral ditsy cotton embroidery on tulle, that added a feminine yet relaxed look to the gown. The delicate scallop edge detailing was the perfect touch for the open back, and matched perfectly with the soft silk chiffon lower skirt, and to finish the look, pleated cap sleeves for a modern touch. It was the perfect gown for a stunning outdoors wedding in France. Find this in our current collection now.
Peony Rice Bride SUNNY, Shanghai, China
Often our brides in Asia have several outfit changes on their special day. Lucky them! We spend a lot of time with our brides to ensure all their outfits compliment one another and stand out in their own unique way. Our bride Sunny came to us looking for a modern vintage feel for her special day in Shanghai. She chose our classic Tatiana
lace bandeau and button back fishtail gown as her entrance gown, which we complimented with our soft tulle cathedral length veil, and for the evening reception we chose our Gloria
Winged V - Back gown which provided a complimentary contrast for the two gowns. This vintage inspired gown added a more demure touch for the evening reception whilst still being elegant and chic. To ensure her maid of honour was perfectly matched we also chose a halter neck A line open back gown in a deep navy hue. Such a beautiful pairing!
How gorgeous does this Peony Rice bride look in our Tina
dress? Our classic bandeau and fishtail silhouette with a demure side and back lace panel detailing. To offer a little styling versatility to her special day, our bride chose to go with two veils to compliment her look. For the main ceremony she chose our whimsical and traditional delicate fingertip soft veil, and for the reception she chose our vintage birdcage veil and Iris
Silk organza for a more playful touch. Simply stunning!
Peony Rice Bride ANN, Pre wedding Photos - Japan
This lovely bride chose one of our favourites, the Gloria
winged sleeve open back gown for her special day. Elegant, with a vintage and classic touch. The ruched waist detailing accentuated our brides figure in all the right places and it was the perfect choice to sit against the beautiful natural backdrop of Kyoto.
"We did our shots in Kyoto yesterday and got tons of compliments on the dress. Thank you for making such a beautiful dress!"- Ann
Peony Rice Bride YING & JAMES, Shanghai, China
When our clients main request is to be the belle of the ball on her special day, how can we possibly resist? We created this stunning bespoke Peony Rice gown that was perfect for her fairy tale wedding. Created from luxurious French chantilly lace, with delicate hand applique florals for a decadent touch, and teamed with a voluminous wool silk and tulle lower skirt. To finish off this stunning look we added a dreamy cathedral length veil with a rich French lace trimming, expertly hand stitched by our artisans. The end result? A happy ever after bride!
Peony Rice Bride, China
This stunning Peony Rice ensemble was the perfect blend of East meets West. Our bride wanted a modern update to the traditional Qi Pao, whilst adding her own personal touch to the outfit. So how could we resist! We created this stunning Qi Pao with a modern A line cut from a luxurious metallic French lace with a subtle purple base. This was the perfect pairing with our signature soft white heavy silk crepe base, and delicate eyelash detailing to finish. To complete this decadent look we added our favourite Cara
angel beaded wings, with a little customized touch. Delicate ostrich feathers that have been lovingly hand stitched to perfection by our artisans. Simply stunning!
Peony Rice Bride CECILE, France
We created this stunning bespoke design for our gorgeous bride who recently got married in a beautiful location in France. We wanted to create a design which represented elegance, timeless beauty, with a subtle touch of tradition. Our designs led to an open back lace gown created with a silk crepe body and a stunning traditional French lace overlay. The look was beautifully finished with a stunning scallop edge, framing the brides delicate frame. To complete this classical look with a twist, we created the lower column skirt with a modern pleated waist band detailing, finished with a delicate chiffon overlay. The final gown was the perfect look versatile enough to take you from church, right through to the beautiful garden setting. We paired this delightful gown with a customised version of our JULIET
cathedral veil. Chosing a complimentary French lace to match the brides gown, carefully hand stitched by our artisans in our studio. Timeless perfection!
"I received many congratulations and amazing compliments on my dress, it is truly the perfect one so many many thanks again for all the work you have done to make it!"- Cecile
Peony Rice Bride GLORIA
Our client Gloria opted for our elegant Frances
gown with a little custom magic to make it extra special, just for her. We added a soft chiffon layer to the skirt for extra movement, and finished the look with a lace embellished waist detailing to keep the look balanced. For extra versatility we added a delicate detachable lace back inset, which provided subtle coverage for the ceremony, which could be easily removed for a more daring look for the evening. Simply lush!
"I loved working with Peony Rice, the girls made everything so much easier (zero stress and in a huge rush) and the best part I never got a "no" for an answer. I really really can't thank you enough for my wedding dress, it's the most amazing dress i could have ever hoped for .. thank you for making my special day amazing!"- Gloria
Peony Rice Bride DONNA, Shanghai, China
Created from delicate lace imported all the way from France, we created this beautiful bespoke gown with a super delicate Chantilly lace overlay and peplum detailing for a subtle and feminine touch. We finished the look with a simple silk petal and veil head topping. The perfect look for a modern spring wedding!
"Peony Rice is THE best bridal design studio in shanghai! Wedding dress is the most important part of my wedding project. I enjoyed the experience and loved my wedding dress I have “completed” together with Pauline. Definitely worth every penny I have paid for."- Donna
Peony Rice Bride ADELE, France
We had so much fun creating this bespoke design for our client, and capturing her spirited nature in the design. The end result was a gorgeous open back relaxed gown, which had all the right Bohemian elements combined with elegance and a whimsical touch. Created from luscious layers of chiffon silk, and finished with a stunning French lace overlay, this gown was the perfect match for the gorgeous lavender field backdrop.
"Thank you so much for your participation to my wedding video testimony! It's was adorable to have you Gar and your team saying those nice words. The dress was perfect, and everyone told me they have rarely seen gracious dress like this, and it is all thanks to you!"- Adele
Peony Rice Bride YUAN RONG, Shanghai, China
This gorgeous bespoke gown, was one close to our own hearts! A beautiful combination of East meets West, we created a modern and elegant Qi pao gown from delicate metallic Chantilly French lace with a gorgeous keyhole back detailing. Beautifully fusing traditional elements and aesthetics from both sides. Stunning!
Peony Rice Bride GRACE & ALWIN, Hong Kong
We always have so much fun creating the perfect gowns for you brides, but it is always that extra bit special when they happen to be good friends too! Our blushing bride Grace chose our ever popular Mae
French lace Qi Pao gown for her evening entrance gown. The perfect choice that incorporates her Asian heritage with a modern twist. Simply stunning!
Peony Rice Bride ZOE, Hangzhou, China
This beautiful bride chose to go for a traditional fishtail cut for her evening reception on her special day in Hangzhou, China, choosing a delicate french lace in a soft dusty blue tone and metallic gold underlay to match her colour theme. These two colours were a warm pairing, highlighting the intricate lace detailing of the dress. With a gorgeous button back detailing, and lace scallop edging to frame her dress, this was the perfect choice for the evening.
Peony Rice Bride SARAH, UK
We created a very special bespoke bridal package for our summer bride, inspired by the brides love of vintage elements. We fused together the perfect combination of modern and traditional for her big day by creating a gorgeous bespoke all over lace gown, which was perfectly paired with our CASSEY
poncho which we created in a specially selected Japanese lace. To complete her look, we styled our bride with our dramatic JULIA
cathedral veil, which gave just the right amount of coverage for the low back detailing on the gown. Topped with our SARAH
embellished head wrap for that subtle vintage touch. Not forgetting the bridal party, our bride styled her bridesmaids and adorable flower girls with with matching lace headbands and flower corsages to complete the look. Simply divine! Read more on the UK wedding here
Peony Rice Bride ISABELLA, China
We loved this stunning bespoke design we created for our elegant bride. A combination of modern simplicity, and impeccable tailoring. We created this structured pleated bandeau gown using the finest wool silk, and added a detachable asymmetric circular skirt, to offer two versatile looks for the day. Paired with an embellished silk rosette belt, this was a grand and spectacular look for her special day.
Peony Rice Bride, UK
A fabulous rework of one of our popular vintage inspired styles, BRIGETTE
with a slight modern twist! We added delicate Chantilly lace sleeves for a softer look, which was perfectly paired with our traditional JULIA
cathedral length veil. We adore how our bride playfully teamed her gown with a gorgeous pair of vintage shoes which were the perfect take on "something blue" for her special day. A delightful British summer wedding!
Peony Rice Bride, France
romantic hybrid of East meets West. We adored working on this custom design, and creating ways to harmoniously infuse elements from different countries together. We created this simple and elegant bandeau Silk twill gown with a 50's twist for our stunning bride, and complimented the final look with an adaption of our CAITLIN
lace bolero using delicate French Chantilly lace for a modern Asian twist. Our bride finished of her look with a personalised obi wrap which was the perfect accessory to bring in her love of Japan to her big day, in the beautiful setting of France. Magnificent!
Peony Rice Bride, USA
This beautiful client chose our stunning Julianna
metallic lace gown paired with our matching Cassey
in a stunning white metallic lace choice. We paired this with our classic cathedral length Judith
Veil to add a dreamy yet traditonal touch to the overall look. Stunning!
Peony Rice Bride VIVIAN, Shanghai, China
We created this stunning bespoke gown for this gorgeous bride Vivian hailing from Singapore , who wanted elegance and coverage, with a vintage touch for her special day. Created using crepe de chine silk, and a special geometric French lace trim for the arm panel. We added a detachable silk organza pleated train to finish off this dramatic look, and paired with our simple birdcage veil for a demure touch. Modern vintage at its finest!
Peony Rice Bride ADRIANA, Mexico
One of our recent clients asked us to create her dream gown with a little Latin touch to bring her spirit and personality to the big day. We created this gorgeous hi-low lace gown with just the right amount of drama, elegance and demure. With a subtle under layer of blush colouring, this was the perfect contrast to bring out the gorgeous floral lace design. Hand applique lace flowers adorned the straps and detachable chiffon train to add the perfect final touches to this elegant gown. Beautiful!
Peony Rice Bride SOPHIE, France
We created a gorgeous bespoke gown for this lovely bride, using specially selected lace from France, to match her French wedding! Our bride opted for a more traditional cut with a slight open V back and button back detailing to finish off the look.
"I would like first to share some words for your exceptional attention to detail, the extra-care of each step of the fabrication of my gown, you both helped me find the perfect dress that fitted my petite shape. Plus I got to choose the perfect French lace I always wanted. Thank you so much for making it happen."- Sophie
Peony Rice Bride PIP, Shanghai, China
This gorgeous bride chose our stunning JESSE
gown, with a little personalisation. Created from a very special silk twill, hand woven by artisans from Cambodia. This dramatic gown is enhanced with its hand pleated detailing, to accentuate the figure in all the right places, and finished with dreamy waves of cascading organza strips. The lower skirt of the gown was extended for a more fuller and dramatic look. To finish off the final look we added our favourite ANNIKA
silk petal headtopping, which sat beautifully next to our JULIA
cathedral length veil. Simply stunning!
"I just wanted to take the opportunity to thank you again for making my beautiful wedding dress. I absolutely loved it. It was such a wonderful experience to work with you and get to know you over the course of the dress making. You are an amazing woman and should be very proud of yourself, there is not many women in the world that I have met like you. You have so much passion in what you do and it clearly shows in your work and attitude towards customs and your business. Thank you again for making my wedding dress experience so easy and enjoyable."- Pip
Peony Rice Bride SARAH, UK
Our gorgeous bride to be chose our exclusive bespoke service where we created the perfect gown for her rustic countryside wedding which took place in a quaint little village in England. A modern and elegant peplum gown created from crepe silk, with a delicate French Chantilly lace overlay. The lace provided a subtle amount of coverage for the ceremony, whilst also adding a whimsical feel to the final look, which was complimented with her dreamy silk chiffon train. The brides natural and tousled hairstyle was perfectly paired with our favourite ANNIKA
Silk Petal head topping to finish off the styling. We were so happy with this bespoke creation, that we decided to add the SARAH
gown to our collection. Happiness is best shared!
"My dress was just perfect, actually more than perfect, I felt fabulous in it and didn’t want to take it off. Everyone else loved it too – so many compliments! I have it hanging in my bedroom on show now (in it’s bag to protect it) and I just love it. It is so beautiful and robust despite being delicate – it survived a ketchup attack (my poor baby cousin had an accident right in front of me, but a best girlfriend rushed straight to the rescue) and the reception on a working farm! The headpiece just finished my wedding outfit off brilliantly – not too much, not too little – perfect with the hairstyle I went for (without any deliberation at all). Everything just fitted into place (with lots of hard work). Thank you so much for all of your time and patience and making me feel so fabulous!"- Sarah
Peony Rice Bride ASTRID, Belgium
We created the perfect bridal package for this gorgeous bride to be, and we were more then delighted with the results! The bride chose our classic TATIANA all over lace button back gown, adding a personalised touch by choosing a lace that perfectly accentuated the open back detailing with the high and low density of the modern floral. The look was completed with just the right amount of ruched detailing on the back, and beautifully adorned with subtle pearl buttons down the back. Focusing on the smaller details, we personalised the brides wedding shoes with our magic touch using the remainder of the lace to custom the shoes, and topped with matching mini silk floral corsages for the ankles. The bride's simple yet modern hair style was perfectly complimented with our ANNIKA Silk Petal and lace head topping, whilst the flower girls perfectly matched with our miniature TIFFANY floral headtoppings. Lush!
"The dress is gorgeous on every angle (the shoes as well!) I loved wearing it and it is such a great feeling to know that it was exactly what I wanted !!! Thank you for everything!" - Astrid
Here is one of our gorgeous brides in our fabulous FAYE
silk jacquard bandeau draped gown. We love how the side drape details accentuates the figure in all the right places, with the side split detailing for a subtle, yet glamourous look. We added a little personalised touch with a silk chiffon detachable train for drama and practicality. Simply lush!
Peony Rice Bride ELS, Indonesia
Glamorous and show stopping, just like the bride, we created this stunning bespoke creation for this fabulous client. Our artisans spent several months creating this gown, complete with hand appliqued lace, beaded detailing, and gorgeous shoulder cut out lace detailing. The open back gave just the right amount of exposure, perfect for the exotic beach location for the big day. For extra drama we included layers of dreamy tulle for the train, which was detachable for practicality! You can find our ELLIE
Gown now in our collection.
Peony Rice Bride SHARON, Hong Kong
One of our clients requested versatility for her special day so we created this gorgeous blush pink Indian Dupioni silk gown, complete with a detachable convertible full skirt. When worn together the dress was dramatic with the volume creating an elegant retro inspired look. For the evening our client chose to take away the skirt to reveal a full length column gown and the skirt became a playful accessory.
"Everyone asked me where I got the dress because it was so unique, so me, and so perfect a fit. I wanted something special, a mix of the Frida and the 50's look. Peony Rice did an unmatchable job in designing the dress with a detachable train that gave me different looks during the big day, and did it in a blush pink Indian dupioni silk! The dress was one of the easiest part of my pre-wedding journey because of the care and efficiency from the team.No stress in my perfect look!" Sharon
Peony Rice Bride AMELIE, France
We created this elegant silk taffeta pleated gown for a recent bride for her Spring wedding held in a beautiful mountain resort in Europe. With a slight modification from our collection design, a modest off the shoulder cut with a deep V back was created with delicate hand ruched detailing for the bodice accentuating the waist, the lower half of this gown is column cut with a custom dramatic origami fold train. The look was finished with delicate Chantilly lace edging around the neckline for the final feminine touch. The AMELIE
gown is now available to order from our collection.
Peony Rice Bride CELESTE , Australia
We recently created this stunning silk gown in our classic bandeau shape, customized with an overlay of fine gold thread lace, carefully hand selected from our french lace supplier. Paired with a bright Ivory Thai silk, and a delicate lace train, this was the perfect gown for an outdoor vineyard wedding.
Peony Rice Bride JEYA, France
A whimsical asymmetric cut silk organza bandeau gown, the body was layered with strips of raw edge fine organza delicately hand stitched in place creating a super lightweight dress, just as requested. A modern style that was feminine and simply dreamy.
"Pauline was amazing - she spent loads of time understanding what I needed and wanted, and helped to steer me as well into the best silhouettes for my body. I wanted a dress that was floaty (I wanted a dress that I could run in!), and Peony Rice created a masterpiece for me! It was modern, simple yet elegant - a perfect fit for me and the wedding! My husband was bowled over by the dress, as well as our guests. Thank you, Pauline, Gar & team :) Now I just have to see if I can fit into it again in 10 years.... " - Jeya
Peony Rice Bride DAVENA & LANCE, Phuket, Thailand
A stunning gown created from Cambodian hand woven silk twill from one of our special social enterprise projects. Lined with a novelty polka dot silk satin lining, the body was hand pleated with a delicate one shoulder tulle accent with a back bow detailing. The look was completed with a matching short floral head topping with a subtle short veil.
"Peony Rice played a grandiose role in making my wedding day the pure perfection that it was. My beautiful white bridal dress was designed and tailor-made especially for me and my style — and it only took two fittings for this masterpiece to be finished. And my gorgeous headpiece completed the look with fashionable, edgy spirit. Peony Rice managed to fuse modern/fashionable city style with traditional/classic wedding beauty and a summery/beach vibe for our big day in Phuket. Five years later, I still cannot believe how magnificently perfect my wedding dress and headpiece were!" - Dav
Peony Rice Bride LELE, Dominican Republic
A tailor made bridal package for you and your loved ones. We created the unique fusion of East meets West for this special bride, using traditional patterned chinese silks jacquards to create a stunning and versatile gown to be worn for two receptions. From the unique gown, CAITLIN
lace capelet, and bouquet to the matching ties and corsages for the wedding party, Peony Rice created pieces to tie in all the themes together harmoniously. Breath taking.
_______________ "Made Out of Love" In Asia _______________